Param Vir Chakra | Awardees

The Param Vir Chakra (PVC), is India’s highest military laurel, that is awarded for exhibiting acts of utmost bravery and through distinguished acts of valor during wartime. 
Param Vir Chakra replicates, ‘Wheel (or Cross) of the Ultimate Brave’. The award is rewarded to the ones who showcase the courage with their actions and even sacrifices their own life in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, sea, or air. 

Who designed the Param Vir Chakra?

The medal of the Pram Vir Chakra was designed by Savitri Khanolkar

How does the medal- Param Vir Chakra look?

The medal is suspended from a straight swiveling suspension bar. On the reverse, around a plain center, are two legends separated by lotus flowers. The words "Param Vir Chakra" are written in Hindi and English. A purple ribbon, 32 millimeters (1.3 in) long, holds the Param Vir Chakra.


Who are eligible for Param Vir Chakra?

  • Officers and men and women of all ranks of the Naval, Military, and Air Forces, of any of the Reserve Forces, of the Territorial Army, Militia, and of any other lawfully constituted Armed Forces.

  • Matrons, Sisters, Nurses, and the Staff of the Nursing Services and other Services pertaining to Hospitals and Nursing, and Civilians of either gender serving regularly or temporarily under the orders, directions, or supervision of any of the above-mentioned Forces.

Who are the awardees of Param Vir Chakra?

Param Vir Chakra medal was introduced in January 1950 and with effect from 15 August 1947.
To date, the Param Vir Chakra has been awarded 21 brave souls, of which 14 were awarded posthumously and 16 arose from actions in Indo-Pakistani conflicts.
20 of the 21 awardees have been from the Indian Army, and one has been from the Indian Air Force. 

Following are the 21 Brave Souls, who were rewarded with the prestigious highest wartime gallantry medal:

1. Somenath Sharma

Rank: Major
Unit: 4th Battalion, Kumaon Regiment
Conflict: Battle of Badgam.
Place of Action: Badgam, J & K, India
Date of Action: 03.11.1947

Somenath Sharma was the first recipient of the Param Vir Chakra, Indi’s Highest Gallantry Award. In 1942, Major Somnath Sharma was made specially to order into the 8th Battalion, in the 19th Hyderabad Regiment. 

Major’s name appeared in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described and because of this, he was served in Burma during the Arakan Campaign in World War II. 

Somnath Sharma was martyred on November 3, 1947, as he repulsed Pakistani covert agent near Srinagar Airport, fighting in the Indo Pakistani War in 1947-1948. 
All throughout his career, he greatly admired and was influenced by his uncle Captain K. D. Vasudeva's gallantry in action. 

On November 3, 1947, Major Somnath Sharma lost his life in defending the Srinagar airport. 

Read, to know more about Somnath Sharma and the official Citation

On 21st June 1950, he was awarded the greatest Gallantry Award for his bravery. 
In the memorabilia of the brave heart, he Shipping Corporation, a Government of India enterprise, named fifteen of their crude oil tankers in honor of Major Somnath Sharma in 1980.

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2. Jadunath Singh

Rank: Naik
Unit: 1st Battalion, Rajput Regiment
Conflict: Indo-Pakistani War, 1947.
Place of Action: NAushera, J & K, India.
Date of Action: 06.02.1948

Jadunath Singh was an Indian Amry Soldier, who led his life for the nation for his actions and engagement in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
He was enlisted in the British army and provided service in the Second World War. 
Mr. Singh has been commanded a nine-man forward section post during the INdo-Pakistani war in 1947. And was wounded in the second assault. And the brave soul diminishes his life in the war, on 6th February 1948. 

He was rewarded the Param Vir Chakra posthumously, on 21st September 1948. In memory of the martyr, 15 crude oil tanker named after Naik Jadunath Singh and a sports stadium was also built by his name in Shahjahanpur.

Read, to know more about Jadunath Singh and the official Citation 

3. Rama Raghoba Rane:

Rank: Second Lieutenant
Unit: Bombay Engineers
Conflict: Indo-Pakistani War, 1947
Place of Action: Naushera, J & K, India.
Date of Action: 08.04.1948

Rama Raghoba Rane was an eminent Indian Army Officer, who was the first living recipient of Param Vir Chakra, which is India’s highest Military’s Laurel.

Alike, Jadunath Singh, he provides service to the British and was a part of the Second World War.  In the post-war period, he was commissioned in the Bombay Sappers Regiment of the Indian Army's Corps of Engineers on 15 December 1947.

In the year 1348, He was to play a key role, in the capture of Rajauri by Indian forces  Whereby being instrumental in clearing several roadblocks and minefields. His actions led to the clear advance movement of Indian tanks. 

He was awarded the Param Vir Chakra on 8 April 1948 for his courage. Later in 1968, he retired from the Indian Army, as a Major, and was mentioned in dispatches in his 28 years of service tenure. 

To celebrate the bravery of the valor soul, 15 Crude oil tanks were named after him by the Shipping Corporation of India as a tribute. And a statue of Raghoba Rane was made in his hometown, Karwar at Rabindranath Tagore beach, Karnataka, alongside INS Chapal Warship Museum. 

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4. Piru Singh Shekhawat

Rank: Company Havildar Major
Unit: Rajputana Rifles 
Conflict: Indo-Pakistani War, 1947
Place of Action: Tithwal, J & K, India. 
Date of Action: 17.07.1948

Piru Singh Shekhawat was an Indian Army non-commissioned officer. He led his service in the British Indian Army and was commissioned to the first Punjab Regiment. He fought in the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947, where he led the troop that was assigned to capture a Pakistani post at Tithwa, Jammu, and Kashmir. 
Initially, the Indian Army was favored by the situation in the war field, until the entire company lay dead or wounded except for Piru Singh himself. Yet he did not gave up and kept struggling and lobbed grenades at the next enemy post. Before moving to another trench, he received a mortal bullet wound to the head and lost his life. 

He defines dedication, patriotism, and bravery. On 17 July 1948, Company Havildar Major Singh was posthumously was awarded India's highest military decoration. In the memorabilia, The Shipping Corporation of India named fifteen crude tankers after his name, and a road roundabout was named after him, as Shahis Piru Singh Shekhawat Circle, in Rajasthan. Also, A intersection called Piru Singh Chawk was named to give him a tribute in Himachal Pradesh.

Read, to know more about Piru Singh and the official Citation 

5. Karam Singh

Rank: Lance Naik
Unit: Sikh Regiment
Conflict: Indo-Pakistani War 1947
Place of Action: Tithwal, J & K, India. 
Date of Action: 13.10.1948

Karam Singh was one of the five Indian Soldiers, who was chosen to raise the Indian Flag after Independence in 1947.  
Lance Naik Karam Singh, is an Indian Soldier who was living recipient of India's highest award for gallantry Param Vir Chakra. He was a part of the Burma Campaign of World War II and in 1944 received the Military Medal for his courageous actions in the Battle of Admin Box.

In the Indo-Pakistan war of 1947, he was successful in saving a forward post at Richhmar Gali, south of Tithwal, and for this reason, was honored with the Param Vir Chakra Award. 
Later he retired in 1969 after being positioned as a Subedar and living by a rank of Coronary Captain. 
Alike other PVC awardees, Karam Singh too was tributed by The The Shipping Corporation of India, by naming 15 crude tankers after him. 
The government also built a memorial in his honor at the District Administrative Complex in Sangrur.
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6. Gurbachan Singh Salaria

Rank: Captain
Unit: Gorkha Rifles
Conflict: Congo Crisis
Place of Action: √Člisabethville, Katanga, Congo
Date of Action: 05.12.1961

Along with serving the Indian Army, Captain Gurubachan Singh was a member of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. Also, he was the first NDA alumnus and UN Peacekeeping member to rewarded this prestigious award. 

Salaria, in 1961 was deployed of the Indian troops to the Republic of the Congo as part of the United Nations Operation in the Congo. On December 5th, 1961, Salaria's battalion was asked to clear a roadblock of two armored cars manned by 150 gendarmes of the secessionist State of Katanga on the way to the Elizabethville Airport. Their plan was to block their retreat, not only did Gurbachan Singh’s team destroyed the armored cars but also, killed forty men from the enemy troop. 

Amidst all of it, Captain Salaria was shot twice and he laid his life at the age of 26 for the Nation against a lethal bullet shot. And thus, for his high dedication towards duty and bravery, he was awarded the Param Vir Chakra award. 

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7. Dhan Singh Thapa:

Rank: Major
Unit: 8, Gorkha Rifles.
Conflict: Sino- Indian War
Place of Action: Ladakh, J & K, India
Date of Action: 20.10.1962

Dhan Singh Thapa was an Indian Army Officer, who was commissioned into the 1st Battalion, 8 Gorkha Rifles in the year 1949. 
In 1962, the Chinese advanced to the north of Pangong Lake with the objective of capturing Sirijap and Yula, which led to the Sino-Indian War. They tried their best to counter shoot at the Chinese but were wholly surrounded by Chinese troops. 

The surviving Indian Soldiers, including Dhan Singh Thapa, were taken as prisoners. For this deed of bravery, he was honored with the prestigious Param Vir Chakra award. 

Followed by a promotion to be a Substantive rank, Dhan Singh became the lieutenant Colonel in 1970 before he retired from the Indian Army. 

He was tributed by the Indian Shipping Corporation by naming 15 Crude tankers after his name. 

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8. Joginder Singh 

Rank: Subedar
Unit:  Sikh Regiment
Conflict:  Sino-Indian War
Place of Action: Tongpen La, NEFA, India
Date of Action: 23.10.1962
Joginder Singh is a brave heart who laid his life for his Nation in the Sino-Indian war and received the biggest gallery award in India’s Military Laurel, the Param Vir Chakra award. After serving the British Indian army he served in the 1st battalion of the Sikh Regiment. 

During his command at the Bum Laa Pass, during the Sino-Indian War, Mr. Singh was outnumbered by the opponent yet did not give up and kept fighting, until he was severely wounded and captured. He lost his life in Chinese custody. 

He was honored by the Indian Shipping Cooperation by naming crude oil tankers after him, a monument has been built at IB Ridge by the Indian Army.
And a memorial statue has been built near the Office of District Collector in Moga.
A biopic was made based on Joginder Singh’s life and his role in the Sino Indian War. 
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9. Shaitan Singh

Rank: Major
Unit: Kumon Regiment
Conflict: Sino-Indian War
Place of Action: Rezang La, J & K, India
Date of Action: 18.11.1962

Major Shaitan Singh Bhati, born in Rajasthan, and initially joined the Jaipur State force before he was transferred to Kumaon Regiment after Jaipur was merged in India. 

He was a part of Indian Amry during the annexation of Goa and operations in Naga Hills. During the war of 1962, he was instructed to station at sector Chulsul. Thus, Shaitan Singh and the company held onto a place a Rezang La, where they were attacked by the Chinese. 

A neck o neck fight happened between the two, but eventually, Indians were overpowered by the Chinese. Throughout the fight, Singh moved from one post to next to keep up his team’s morale and kept on bloating them. 

As he moved without covers, he was severely injured and was surrendered by his injuries. And for his brave actions, he stood as a Param Veer Chakra Awardee.

Similar to other PVC awardees Shaitan Singh was tributed by the Indian Shipping Commission for his splendid brave work. 

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10. Abdul Hamid

Rank: Company Quarter Master Havildar
Unit: The Grenadiers
Conflict: Battle of Asal Uttar
Place of Action: Khemkaran, India.
Date of Action: 10.09.1965
Abdul Hamid, who posthumously received the biggest Military Gallantry Award,  for his highly brave actions in the Indo-Pakistani war in 1965.

Posted in the 4th Battalion of the Grenadiers Regiment, Hamid’s battalion participated in the battle of Namka Chu against the People's Liberation Army during Sino-Indian War. At the Battle of Asal Uttar on 9–10 September 1965, Hamid destroyed six Pakistani tanks and was killed during an engagement with a seventh. HE laid his life with pride for his Mother India. 

He was tributed by issuing  3 stamps commemorating Hamid was issued by India Post as part of a set of five stamps honoring recipients of awards for gallantry. The stamp has a bust of Hamid and an illustration of a jeep with a recoilless rifle.

In the memory of the brave Abdul Hamid, Every year, a big sports and culture fair is organized in Asal Uttar village on 9. On the 46th anniversary of his death, Hamid’s home went on a renovation in which a new statue of Hamid, repairs, and painting of the gates and boundary, and improvements to the garden were made, where Rajeev Chandrasekhar, founder of Flags of Honour, spoke on the occasion.

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11. Ardeshir Tarapore

Rank: Lieutenant Colonel
Unit: Poona Horse
Conflict: Battle of Chawida
Place of Action: Phillora, Sialkot, Pakistan.
Date of Action: 11.09.1965

Initially, Lieutenant Tarapore joined the Indian Army Infantry and later was transferred to an armored regiment, the first imperial service Lancers. He was one of those many Indian men who served the British Indian army during the second world war. 

After joining the Indian Army in 1951, Tarapore was commissioned again in April 1951 and was posted to the Poona Horse regiment, 17th Battalion. During the Indo-Pakistani war, of 1965, 17 Horses saw actions in the Sialkot District. Brave Colonel Tarapore led the battle in several tanks and was killed in one such battle at Butur-Dograndi on 16 September.
Under his leadership, sixty Pakistani tanks were destroyed by his regiment while only nine tanks were destroyed Indian Army.
Tarapore received the Idia’s Biggest GAllantry award posthumously.

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12. Albert Ekka

Rank: Lance Naik
Unit: Brigade of the Guards
Conflict: Battle of Hilli
Place of Action: Gangasagar, Agartala, India.
Date of Action: 03.12.1971

Albert Ekka was a brave soldier of the Indian Army who lost his life fighting for the Nation in the Battle of Hilli, during the Indo-Pakistani war. For his valor, he was awarded the bravery award Param Vir Chakra Posthumously. 

In memorabilia of the brave soul, the Government of India issues a postal stamp by his name, and Jharkhand names a road interesting as Albert Ekka Chowk, which also has a statue of the splendid man. 

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13. Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon

Rank: Flying Officer
Unit: No. 18 Squadron IAF
Conflict: Indo-Pakistani war, 1971
Place of Action: Srinagar, J & K, India
Date of Action: 14.12.1971

Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon was the only officer from Indian Aurfoece who is an awardee of this highly prestigious award. He was rewarded posthumously, for he showcased extremely bravery of his lone defence of Srinagar Airbase against PAFair raid in 1971, during the Indo-Pakistani war. 

He was honored by making his statues at several locations in Punjab. Also, a marine tanker was built to give him a tribute by naming it as Flying Officer Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon, PVC. A statue in tribute of Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon was created by Ludhiana district court in the courtyard next to the flag pole. His statue along with a decommissioned Folland Gnat fighter has been placed in the Indian Air Force Museum in Palam. 

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14. Arun Khetrapal

Rank: Second Lieutenant
Unit: Poona Horse
Conflict: Battle of Basantar
Place of Action: Barapind-Jarpal, Shakargarh, Pakistan
Date of Action: 16.12.1971

Arun Khetrapal was an eminent Indian Army Officer, who was tributed posthumously with India’s biggest gallantry award the Param Vir Chakra for his courageous actions against the enemy. He lost his life fighting the enemies on the battlefield, of Shakargarh, where he was severely wounded. 

Even at his dying hour, his actions had denied a vital breakthrough for Pakistani forces and instead put the Indians in a stronger position in the Shakargarh bulge. 

Khetrapal lives in the ethos of the Indian Army through the prominent constructions being named after him. The parade ground at National Defence Academy is named Khetarpal Ground while the auditorium and one of the main gates bear his name at the IMA.
Arun Khetarpal's Centurion was called Famagusta Jx 202. It was restored after the war and is presently preserved in the Armoured Corps Centre and School in Ahmednagar
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15. Hoshiar Singh Dahiya

Rank: Major
Unit: The Grenadiers
Conflict: Battle of Basantar
Place of Action: Basantar River, Shakargarh, Pakistan
Date of Action: 17 December 1971

Major Hoshiar, was a brave-hearted, who was honored with the biggest gallantry award, the Param Vir Chakra. Facing a wave of counter-attacks from the opposition, Major, while being injured rushed to a machine-gun pit and manned the gun himself till the enemy retreated. Singh refused to be evacuated till the ceasefire. 

Later was promoted as a substantive major, followed by being promoted as Lieutenant Colonel 
He rose to command his battalion and retired from the Indin army in 1988.

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16. Bana Singh

Rank: Naib Subedar
Unit: Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry
Conflict: Operation Rajiv
Place of Action: Siachen Glacier, J & K, India
Date of Action: 23.05.1987

In his service tenure in the Indian army, he held the ranks of Naib Subedar, Subedar, Subedar Major, and Honorary Captain. Under the supervision and instruction of Subedar Bana Singh, his team conquered the highest peak in the Siachen area as part of Operation Rajiv. 

The highest point the conquered was thus named after this man, as Bana Post. 
For his dedication and great work, he was rewarded with Param Vir Chakra.

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17. Ramaswamy Parameshwaran

Rank: Major
Unit: Mahar Regiment
Conflict: Operation Pawan 
Place of Action: Sri Lanka
Date of Action: 25.11.1987

An awardee of India’s highest military decoration, Ramaswamy Parameshwaran was granted Short Service Commission in the 15th Battalion Mahar Regiment on 16 January 1972. 

On 25 November 1987, when Major Ramaswamy Parameswaran was returning from a search operation in Sri Lanka, late at night, his column was ambushed by a group of militants that had five rifles. With a cool presence of mind, he encircled the militants from the rear and charged into them, taking them completely surprise. During the hand-to-hand combat, a militant shot him in the chest. Undaunted, Major Parameswaran snatched the rifle from the militant and shot him dead. Gravely wounded, he continued to give orders and inspired his command till he died. Five militants were killed and three rifles and two rocket launchers were recovered and the ambush was cleared. 

The Indian Army tribute this brave man by naming welfare housing board built a colony in Arcot Road Chennai, after him.

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18. Manoj Kumar Pandey

Rank: Lieutenant
Unit: 11, Gorkha Rifles
Conflict: Operation Vijay
Place of Action: Khaluber /Juber Top, J & K, India
Date of Action: 03.05.1999

Manoj Kumar Pandey was posthumously awarded the highest gallantry award, for his courageous presence and sacrificed life in order to his nation during the Kargil War. He was killed in action during the attack on Jubar Top of the Khalubar Hills in the Batalik Sector of Kargil.

Lt. Manoj forced back intruders from Batalik and led his men to recapture Jaubar Top. In a bid to recapture Khalubar, the battalion was halted by enemy fire but Lt Manoj surged ahead through a hail of bullets, collapsing only after the last of the enemies had been killed. 
He was hugely honored and tributed for his deeds in the war field. 

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19. Yogendra Singh Yadav

Rank: Grenadier
Unit: The Grenadiers
Conflict: Battle of Tiger Hill
Place of Action: Kargil, J & K, India.
Date of Action: 04.05.1999
Yogender Singh ii a junior commissioned officer, in Indian Amry to be awarded the Param Vir Chakra, to tribute his actions during the Kargil War. Mr. Singh was only 19 when he was decorated this award, and is the youngest Amry Official to have received this honorable medal. 

As he was tasked to capture 3 Tiger Hill bunkers, Grenadier Yadav, after being hit by three bullets, climbed the remaining 60 feet to reach an enemy bunker at the top of the place and lobbed a grenade, killing 4 enemies and neutralizing enemy life. His dedication and determination brought him the prestigious reward. 

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20. Sanjay Kumar

Rank: Rifleman
Unit: Jammu and Kashmir Rifles
Conflict: Kargil War
Place of Action: Kargil, J & K, India
Date of Action: 05.05.1999

Sanjay Kumar is a brave soldier and pride of the Indian Army, who was tasked with capturing a point in Ladakh’s Mushkoh Valley. He killed three enemy soldiers, by crawling alone up to the ledge and having picked up an enemy machine gun.  His courageous attempt brought him to the great Gallantry Award, the Param Vir Chakra.

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21. Vikram Batra

Rank: Captain 
Unit: Jammu and Kashmir Rifles
Conflict: Operation Vijay
Place of Action: Kargil, J & K, India
Date of Action: 05.05.1999

Vikram Batra, the braveheart was rewarded with the Param Vir Chakra for his efficient determination towards his nation and sense of responsibility for fellow mates. He engaged three enemy soldiers in a close battle where he killed them as his Delta Company recaptured Point 5140. 
As he tried to rescue a fellow officer, he was killed by the enemy. His father received the award from the president of India on the 52nd Anniversary of India’s Independence. 

He is known for using the slogan YEH DIL MAANGE MORE! Several landmarks were named him as an honor. To add on, the hall at the Service Selection Centre Allahabad is named 'Vikram Batra Block', a residential area in the Jabalpur Cantonment is called 'Captain Vikram Batra Enclave' and the combined cadet's mess at the IMA is named 'Vikram Batra Mess'. Some intersection was also named by him to respectable tribute to one of the Nation’s Pride. 

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